The benefits of reading are manifold. For Ralph Waldo Emerson, what’s wonderful about books is that “a company of the wisest and the most deserving people from all the civilized countries of the world, for thousands of years can make the results of their studies and their wisdom available to us” whereas for Honore de Balzac, reading acquaints us with “unknown friends.” Research suggests reading not only magnifies our capacity for empathy and strengthens our ability to be open-minded, it promotes the kind of free-thinking on which democracy depends. As writers, reading has the added benefit of helping us improve our craft. Much like a blacksmith learns to mold metals by studying under an apprentice, a writer learns the elements of composition by dissecting (and imitating) her favorite penmen. Writing is a kind of magic: it takes instruction under the tutelage of a master to become an enchantress of the craft.
The belief that we can become better writers by becoming better readers is at the heart of journalist and Poynter Institute senior scholar Roy Peter Clark’s new book The Art of X-Ray Reading: How the Secrets of 25 Great Works of Literature Will Improve Your Writing. A wonderful companion to his altogether indispensable Writing Tools: 50 Essential Strategies for Every Writer, The Art of X-Ray Reading surveys some of the most celebrated works in all of English letters, distilling their insights into practical lessons writers- both novice and expert- can apply to their craft. If we want to write with the lyrical beauty of a Fitzgerald or with an appreciation of the short sentence like Melville, Clark argues we must read actively with “x-ray glasses” close at hand. Written with a profound reverence for story-telling and an obvious love of literature, The Art of X-Ray Reading will teach you to dissemble a text so you can better understand how it works. Though as a bookish English major I’ve read most of the texts Clark examines, I closed The Art of X-Ray Reading with a newfound appreciation for many of those tattered treasures we call the “canon.” From analyzing how Hemingway intentionally omits information to build suspense to anatomizing how Hersey harnesses the power of understatement to emphasize the drama of that fateful morning on August 6th, Clark helps us peek behind the curtain on literature’s finest sentences, revealing good writing is the product of deliberate workmanship- not of chance:
“Where do writers learn their best moves? They learn from a technique I call X-ray reading. They read for information or vicarious experience or pleasure, as we all do. But in their reading, they see something more. It’s as if they had a third eye or a pair of X-ray glasses like the ones advertised years ago in comic books.
This special vision allows them to see beneath the surface of the text. There they observe the machinery of making meaning, invisible to the rest of us. Through a form of reverse engineering…they see the moving parts, the strategies that create the effects we experience from the page- effects such as clarity, suspense, humor, epiphany, and pain. These working parts are then stored in the writer’s toolshed in boxes with names such as grammar, syntax, punctuation, spelling, semantics, etymology, poetics, and that big box- rhetoric.”
In Chapter 5 “Jolt of Insight,” Clark close reads Sylvia Plath’s first and only novel, The Bell Jar. The story follows Esther Greenwood, an ambitious young writer who earns a coveted internship at a prestigious New York magazine as a guest editor. Though she knows her dazzling life of big city glamor and patent leather would be the envy of most girls, Esther becomes more and more disenchanted as the novel goes on. When she returns home to Massachusetts to find she hasn’t been accepted to a distinguished summer writing program, she sinks into a debilitating depression. An incisive and deeply disturbing account of mental illness, The Bell Jar is one of my favorite novels not only for its historical-cultural significance (never before had a book so frankly discussed such topics as the tension between career and child-bearing or the taboo subject of a woman’s desire for sex), but for the unrivaled genius of its prose. The Bell Jar’s first line makes evident Plath’s literary virtuoso:
It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn’t know what I was doing in New York.
With a linguist’s ear for the subtle effects of sound and a critic’s eye for socio-cultural references, Clark deconstructs this masterpiece of a first sentence:
“Before I read another word, I felt the need to X-ray that sentence. At twenty-three words, it is a short and memorable first sentence for a novel, beginning with a subject and verb of the main clause, always an encouraging sign.
“It was a queer, sultry summer…”
I feel a tension between the adjectives queer and sultry. The first carries a judgement of distortion, something not quite right in the air. The second, sultry, has the sense of something physical, hot and humid, but not necessarily unpleasant, perhaps carrying a sexual connotation, like the sound of a tenor sax. (I’ve always felt that individual letters can carry hidden meanings. It may seem strange to say, but the letter u makes me uneasy, especially that triple dose of it in the phrase “queer, sultry summer.”)
What comes next is a shocking intrusion: “the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs…”
A lot of things happened during the summer of 1953, when the story takes place: the Korea War ended, JFK and Jackie were married in Newport, Rhode Island; television was coming into its own. An obsession with a New York Jewish couple executed for espionage aligns with queer and connects the collective paranoia of the McCarthy era with our protagonist’s distorted view of reality.
The whole sentence moves with remarkable efficiency from a season to an era to the confusion of a single young woman.”
So what can writers learn from this remarkable first line? If you want to entice your readers to keep reading, Clark recommends adding an element of shock or surprise:
Writing Lesson #1
“Many examples of good writing have a one-two-three quality to them: subject, verb, object. In most cases, you don’t want the reader to stop or even pause. My mentor Don Fry calls this effect the “steady advance.” But there will be exceptions, moments when the writer will intrude on the reader’s expectations, even in the middle of a sentence. Call it a bump in the road. Plath achieves this effect with the insertion of the Rosenberg execution inside her first sentence. What if the sentence had been: “It was a queer, sultry summer, and I didn’t know what I was doing in New York.” Clear and compelling enough, but not brilliant and explosive. Most sentences you write will be A-B-C. If you want to catch the reader off guard, consider A-X-B.”
As readers, it’s often easier to understand “what” an author is saying than to decipher “how” it is she produces certain effects. “It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn’t know what I was doing in New York.” What is being said is clear enough but how it manages to linger in our memory- that’s more of a mystery. Clark further demystifies the spell of this stellar sentence by unveiling the “how” behind its effectiveness. Plath’s opening line is brilliant largely in part because it establishes the novel’s central motif of electrocution from the very first sentence:
“If something is important enough to place in the first sentence of a novel, even as a seeming aside, is it important enough to revisit? We saw in Gatsby how the author introduced the green light on Daisy’s dock in the first chapter, how he reintroduced that light in the middle of the novel, and how he brought it back, with dozens of suggestive thematic implications, at the end. We come to expect that type of exquisite story architecture from our favorite literary artists.
So beyond my personal curiosity about the Rosenbergs, should I expect them to return to the stage later in Plath’s novel? Here is what follows that first sentence:
I’m stupid about executions. The idea of being electrocuted makes me sick, and that’s all there was to read about in the papers- google-eyed headlines staring up at me on every street corner and at the fusty, peanut-smelling mouth of every subway. It had nothing to do with me, but I couldn’t help wondering what it would be like, being burned alive all along your nerves.
I thought it must be the worst thing in the world.
“It has nothing to do with me.” Yeah, right. It has everything to do with our protagonist, Esther Greenwood, a fill-in for Plath in this highly autobiographical novel, who, during an internship at a fashion magazine in New York City, is traumatized time and again.
Sure enough, the Rosenbergs reappear on page 100 of my edition, the beginning of chapter 9. Esther is speaking with another young woman at the fashion magazine about the imminent execution of Esther and Julius:
So I said, “Isn’t it awful about the Rosenbergs?”
The Rosenbergs were to be electrocuted late that night.
“Yes!” Hilda said, and at last I felt I had touched a human string in the cat’s cradle of her heart. It was only as the two of us waited for the others in the tomblike morning gloom of the conference room that Hilda amplified that Yes of hers.
“It’s awful that such people should be alive…I’m so glad that they’re going to die.”
This dispiriting moment comes just before the crisis that will crush our protagonist at the end of the first half of the book, when a blind date turns into a muddy rape attempt that leaves her physically injured and emotionally devastated, so much so that she returns to her hotel and throws all her glamorous clothes she has accumulated off the top of the skyscraper.
Piece by piece, I fed my wardrobe to the night wind, and flutteringly, like a loved one’s ashes, the gray scraps were ferried off, to settle here, there, exactly where I would never know, in the dark heart of New York.
In that dark moment, Plath offers a kind of silent convergence of the public and private. Almost at the exact time the Rosenbergs would be electrocuted, the main character undergoes a kind of symbolic death, her clothes being scatted to the winds, “like a loved one’s ashes.”
The sign of a true artist is her every choice is intentional. Though the reference to the Rosenbergs in the first line seems like a passing comment, Clark realizes it has a much greater significance to The Bell Jar as a whole. Like the Jewish spies executed during that “queer, sultry” summer, Esther will be electrocuted in a botched electro-shock treatment after suffering a mental breakdown. Foreshadowed in that first trifling twenty-three word sentence is the most tragic, climatic moment of the novel:
“It was only after I had closed the book that I was stunned by the beauty of what Plath had created. It was like looking at daybreak pouring through the rose window of a cathedral. All that business about the Rosenbergs- the constant references not to their execution but to their electrocution– turned out to be a prologue to the traumatic events in Esther’s life, including a medical procedure in a facility that looks and works like a prison in which she is pinned down and wired up (like the Rosenbergs, no doubt) and shot up with electricity. It is, at least at first, her version of the death penalty.”
What makes The Bell Jar such a masterful work is how it’s so architecturally sound. One of the greatest literary geniuses of our time, Plath establishes the novel’s principal motif in the very first line, the Rosenbergs’ brutal execution by electric chair a harbinger of Esther’s barbaric treatment by electroshock. If stories are man’s way of making sense of the world, a good story imposes order onto the messy material of real life’s chaos. Unlike in life, in a story, each event has meaning; every interaction, every exchange, a role: to reveal character, to establish theme or tone. Every single line operates to form a coherent narrative arc. But in the hands of a less adept storyteller, a novel will seem the product neither of logic nor thought: incidents, both pressing and trivial, will be included at random with no regard as to whether they have a purpose like advance the plot, an object will seem symbolically significant but only be mentioned once. An expert storyteller, on the other hand, hypnotizes us by giving the impression that every element of the narrative performs an essential part: a dramatic change in weather reflects a shift in mood, the repetition of an object will be shown to have meaning later on.
The Bell Jar stands as a harrowing beauty of an American classic largely because Plath’s storytelling is all method and no madness. Though she traces one woman’s terrifying descent into insanity, she writes with a control that is rational and painstaking. It is proof of her artistry that she is able to hint at the plot’s highest point from the first few words. Clark suggests incorporating a unifying theme, image, or motif into our work to make it similarly cohere:
Writing Lesson #2
“Not all allusions are created equal. When an author quotes another author or mentions historical figures (such as the Rosenbergs), he or she embeds one narrative within another. As we’ve seen with the opening of The Bell Jar, an apparent offhand comment becomes a much grander metaphor, taking on new contexts and connotations as the narrative builds up steam. Most coherent texts contain a dominant image- sometimes more than one-that links the parts and accelerates the action.”